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The globalization process has forced the countries economically, politically and sociologically to face with three basic phenomenon; “integration”, “micro nationality” and “unpredictability”. All of these phenomenon have forced the traditional forms of international relations and have pushed the countries to search of new foreign policy instruments.

“Civil Diplomacy” is one of the top instruments. It has really great share in the highly dynamic construction process that several values such as democracy and human rights have begun to form common values system, which has been shared by the societies.

Turkey will be able to handle easier with the recent challenges if it decides to mobilize all of its institutional civil diplomacy instruments in sub-regional and identical issues at a global scale. At this point, we should overcome the political obstacles before all. This solution, which is directly related with the political wills of the related countries, is possible with overcoming the prejudices based on the national benefits, the adherences related with the identity and the historical baggage among the countries. The countries have been trying to strengthen the channels of civil diplomacy also known generally as “second track diplomacy” because of recovering the decrease of impact and efficiency of traditional official diplomacy based on being unable to go across the certain treatment forms and legal limitations. 

One of the most important factors of civil diplomacy is the increase of interaction among the business premises and another one is the increase of cultural interaction among the societies. And another important part is the activities hold by academic premises and think tanks. Besides of these three basic factors, sectorial diplomacy channels that have been using the strong instruments in the recent years have been occurred. By the civil diplomacy, the sides can make the exchange of views in a wider frame without feeling themselves under the pressure of hard rules of the official diplomacy; can develop a perspective and cooperation; can suggest decision options that are necessary for the policy. 

Turkey has an exclusive location among the countries in the world in terms of diplomatic experiences and applications. Indeed, historical background has a great share in that case. However, it is obvious that highly comprehensive relations in terms of economy and culture can’t be brought to the wanted level only with the activities hold on official diplomacy track.

Also, there has been a great share that the civil society mentality hasn’t been developed enough in Turkey and then civil diplomacy culture has begun to develop only since the 1990s. We should also underline the fact that active civil think tanks have been appeared institutionally in this period for the first time. There is another reason for this lateness that the outsourcing of Turkish economy has begun since the 1980s. 

Because of these and similar reasons, also Turkey has felt the heavy load of the obligation to stay in the official diplomatic frame in a large scale while it has been developing its international relations and also Turkey has often faced with great difficulties in the case of overcoming some problems like lots of countries. It is important to deepen mutually the civil diplomacy channels in a global scale for overcoming such difficulties easier, strengthening the economic and political efficiency and increasing the decision options in the next period. The cooperation and suggestions will provide an important contribution to display an active position in the international field by Turkey.

All big, middle or small countries should make the cooperation or produce the alternative solutions to face the global problems such as economic crisis; the danger of famine; the security of energy, water and nourishment; environmental problems; drugs; human trafficking and the counterterrorism. At this point, the most important case for Turkey is the question of how the global developments will be shaped at the end of the solution researches.

The nation states are the factors, who produce values when they make cooperation according to their economic, political and cultural futures; but in the same time who have a potential to harm each other so much when they are contrast, in the globalizing world if we observe them in a historical and geopolitical perspective.

If we observe the cooperation opportunities, Turkey is at the level of holding common projects by developing multilateral policies (Africa, Balkans, Black Sea, the Middle East, the Middle Asia, South Asia, Far East, Latin America, countries of NATO and Arab countries etc.) with the other countries and international institutions.

In this case, official state institutions should direct institutional inventory in a flexible frame. It is highly important to move present studies to the forward levels and prevent the repetitions for ignoring the source waste in the activities of official or non-official institutions. 

In addition, it is significant to remove mismatches based on vision and application among different institutions. So, we should complete the activities related with “civil diplomacy” inside of the country, and then we should describe the role of different institutions and actors without creating a complexity or source waste.

The developments in the transportation and communication technologies have pinned down the countries in the same scale with Turkey to assimilate gradual strategic approaches which can use the civil diplomacy instruments well and enhance to the furthest countries by finding inadequate the close regions.

It is essential to require civil diplomacy channels in the deepening the relations with Turkic and Islamic World in the level of identity; with the institutions such as EU, SCO, OIC and NATO in terms of international institutions; with the Middle East, Black Sea - Caucasians, the Mediterranean and Balkans in the regional scale; and with Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, the North America and Australia in the level of continent at the common adherence basement.



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Latin America and Caribbean

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The Middle East

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Turkey Brand in Cooperation of Development

International Integrations

Innovation in Diplomacy



Humanist Diplomacy

Defense Diplomacy

Health Diplomacy

Belief Diplomacy

Culture and Art Diplomacy

Education Diplomacy

Science Diplomacy

Business Diplomacy

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Water Diplomacy

Food Diplomacy

Energy Diplomacy

Tourism Diplomacy

Security Diplomacy

City Diplomacy

Finance Diplomacy

Media and İnformation Diplomacy

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